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Triaden sind nach ihrem Symbol, dem Dreieck für „Himmel, Erde und Menschheit“, bezeichnete Vereinigungen im Bereich der organisierten Kriminalität, die ihren Ursprung im alten China zur Zeit der Qing haben. Triaden (chinesisch 三合會 / 三合会, Pinyin Sānhéhuì – „Gesellschaft der Triaden, Gesellschaft In der Presse und auch in der Literatur werden die Triaden bisweilen zumeist als Umschreibung auch als „Chinesische Mafia“ bezeichnet. Peking (China) – Große Mafia-Organisationen gibt es in vielen Ländern: Die Mafia in Italien und den USA, die Yakuza in Japan und die Los. Nach einem Jahrhundert im Untergrund ging der Aufstieg der Triaden von kriminellen Widerstandszellen zur weltweit agierenden "chinesischen Mafia" recht. Die chinesischen Triaden sind weltweit vertreten. Die „gelbe Mafia„ kooperiert mit anderen asiatischen Tätergruppen, der japanischen „Yakuza„, mit.
Die chinesischen Triaden sind weltweit vertreten. Die „gelbe Mafia„ kooperiert mit anderen asiatischen Tätergruppen, der japanischen „Yakuza„, mit. Nach einem Jahrhundert im Untergrund ging der Aufstieg der Triaden von kriminellen Widerstandszellen zur weltweit agierenden "chinesischen Mafia" recht. Die chinesische Mafia breitet sich ausgehende von Hongkong und Macao im Süden des Mutterlandes aus. In Macao, das im Dezember in die chinesische.
Chinesische Mafia VideoInside Taiwan’s Most Notorious Mafia
Rumors have it that triads have now migrated to the U. S and all groups and factions have now joined and aligned themselves as one large group. There are no longer any separations with rivals or groups, including United Bamboo and 14k.
Triad, a China-based criminal organization, secret association or club, was a branch of the secret Hung Society. The society was fragmented, and one group known as the Triad and the Ching Gang became a criminal organization.
After the People's Republic of China was founded in , secret societies in mainland China were suppressed in campaigns ordered by Mao Zedong.
Most Chinese secret societies, including the triads and some of the remaining Ching Gang, relocated to British-controlled Hong Kong, Taiwan, Southeast Asia and overseas countries particularly the US and competed with the Tong and other Chinese secret societies.
Gradually, Chinese secret societies turned to drugs and extortion for income. These societies adopted the triangle as their emblem, usually accompanied by decorative images of swords or portraits of Guan Yu.
British Hong Kong was intolerant of secret societies, and the British considered the triads a criminal threat. Triads were charged and imprisoned under British law.
During the 19th century, many such societies were seen as legitimate ways of helping immigrants from China settle into a new country. Secret societies were banned by the British government in Singapore during the s, and slowly reduced in number by successive colonial governors and leaders.
Facilitating the origins of Singapore gangs, the opium trade, prostitution and brothels were also banned. Immigrants were encouraged to seek help from a local kongsi instead of turning to secret societies, which contributed to the societies' decline.
After World War II , the secret societies saw a resurgence as gangsters took advantage of uncertainty and growing anti-British sentiment.
When the Chinese Communist Party came to power in in mainland China, law enforcement became stricter and a government crackdown on criminal organizations forced the triads to migrate to British Hong Kong.
An estimated , triad members lived in Hong Kong during the s. According to the University of Hong Kong, most triad societies were established between and and there were once more than in the territory.
The number of groups has consolidated to about 50, of which 14 are under police surveillance. There were nine main triads operating in Hong Kong.
They divided land by ethnic group and geographic locations, with each triad in charge of a region. Each had a headquarters, sub-societies and public image.
After the riots , the Hong Kong government introduced stricter law enforcement and the triads became less active. On 18 January , Italian police arrested 33 people connected to a Chinese triad operating in Europe as part of its Operation China Truck which began in The indictment accuses the Chinese triad of extortion, usury, illegal gambling, prostitution and drug trafficking.
The group was said to have infiltrated the transport sector, using intimidation and violence against Chinese companies wishing to transport goods by road into Europe.
According to the expert in terrorist organizations and mafia-type organized crime Antonio De Bonis, there is a close relationship between the Triads and the Camorra , and the port of Naples is the most important landing point of the trades managed by the Chinese in cooperation with the Camorra.
Among the illegal activities in which the two criminal organizations work together are the human trafficking and illegal immigration aimed at the sexual and labor exploitation of the Chinese compatriots into Italy, the synthetics drug trafficking and the laundering of illicit money through the purchase of real estate.
In it, industrial waste was exported from Italy to China, guaranteeing million-dollar revenues for both organizations.
The industrial waste left Prato in Italy and arrived in Hong Kong. Triads engage in a variety of crimes, from fraud , extortion and money laundering to trafficking and prostitution , and are involved in smuggling and counterfeiting goods such as music, video, software, clothes, watches and money.
Since the first opium bans during the 19th century, Chinese criminal gangs have been involved in worldwide illegal drug trade.
Many triads switched from opium to heroin, produced from opium plants in the Golden Triangle , refined into heroin in China and trafficked to North America and Europe, in the s and s.
The most important triads active in the international heroin trade are the 14K and the Tai Huen Chai. Triads have begun smuggling chemicals from Chinese factories to North America for the production of methamphetamine , and to Europe for the production of MDMA.
Triads in the United States also traffic large quantities of ketamine. Triads have been engaging in counterfeiting since the s.
During the s and s, they were involved in counterfeiting currency often the Hong Kong cent piece. The gangs were also involved in counterfeiting expensive books for sale on the black market.
With the advent of new technology and the improvement of the average standard of living, triads produce counterfeit goods such as watches, film VCDs and DVDs and designer apparel such as clothing and handbags.
In , four triad members were arrested for health care fraud in Japan. Triads use numeric codes to distinguish ranks and positions within the gang; the numbers are inspired by Chinese numerology and based on the I Ching.
Law enforcement and intel have it that the Vanguard may actually hold the highest power or final word. A military commander also known as a Red Pole , overseeing defensive and offensive operations, is ; 49 denotes a soldier , or rank-and-file member.
The White Paper Fan provides financial and business advice , and the Straw Sandal is a liaison between units. Blue Lanterns are uninitiated members, equivalent to Mafia associates, and do not have a designating number.
According to De Leon Petta Gomes da Costa, who interviewed triads and authorities in Hong Kong, most of the current structure is a vague, low hierarchy; the traditional ranks and positions no longer exist.
Similar to the Indian thuggees or the Japanese yakuza , triad members participate in initiation ceremonies. After drinking a mixture of wine and blood from the animal or the candidate , the member passes beneath an arch of swords while reciting the triad's oaths.
The paper on which the oaths are written will be burnt on the altar to confirm the member's obligation to perform his duties to the gods. Three fingers of the left hand are raised as a binding gesture.
Similar to triads, Tongs originated independently in early immigrant Chinatown communities. The word means "social club", and tongs are not specifically underground organizations.
The first tongs formed during the second half of the 19th century among marginalized members of early immigrant Chinese-American communities for mutual support and protection from nativists.
Modeled on triads, they were established without clear political motives and became involved in criminal activities such as extortion, illegal gambling, drug and human trafficking, murder and prostitution.
Triads were also active in Chinese communities throughout Southeast Asia. When Malaysia and Singapore with the region's largest population of ethnic Chinese became crown colonies , secret societies and triads controlled local communities by extorting protection money and illegal money lending.
Many conducted blood rituals, such as drinking one another's blood, as a sign of brotherhood; others ran opium dens and brothels.
Remnants of these former gangs and societies still exist. Due to government efforts in Malaysia and Singapore to reduce crime, the societies have largely faded from the public eye particularly in Singapore.
Triads were also common in Vietnamese cities with large Chinese especially Cantonese and Teochew communities. During the French colonial period , many businesses and wealthy residents in Saigon particularly in the Chinatown district and Haiphong were controlled by protection-racket gangs.
With Vietnamese independence in , organized crime activity was drastically reduced as Ho Chi Minh 's governments purged criminal activity in the country.
According to Ho, abolishing crime was a method of protecting Vietnam and its people. Diem banned brothels, massage parlours, casinos and gambling houses, opium dens, bars, drug houses and nightclubs, all establishments frequented by the triads.
The government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam purged and imprisoned organized criminals, including triads, in the Haiphong and Hanoi areas.
With pressure from Ho Chi Minh's police, Triad affiliates had to choose between elimination or legality. During the Vietnam War , the triads were eliminated in the north; in the south, Republic of Vietnam corruption protected their illegal activities and allowed them to control US aid.
During the s and s, all illegal Sino-Vietnamese activities were eliminated by the Vietnamese police. They are often involved in migrant smuggling.
In Australia, the major importer of illicit drugs in recent decades has been 'The Company', according to police sources in the region.
This is a conglomerate run by triad bosses which focuses particularly on methamphetamine and cocaine. It has laundered money through junkets for high-stakes gamblers who visit Crown Casinos in Australia and Macau.
They cooperate with the police to impede the expansion of triads and other organized gangs. The Asian Gang Unit of the Metro Toronto Police was formerly responsible for dealing with triad-related matters, but a larger unit was created to deal with the broad array of ethnic gangs.
At the national and, in some cases, provincial level, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police 's Organized Crime Branch is responsible for investigating gang-related activities including triads.
Asian gangs are found in many cities, primarily Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary and Edmonton. The Organized Crime and Law Enforcement Act provides a tool for police forces in Canada to handle organized criminal activity.
The act enhances the general role of the Criminal Code with amendments to deal with organized crime in dealing with criminal triad activities.
Asian organized-crime groups were ranked the fourth-greatest organized-crime problem in Canada, behind outlaw motorcycle clubs, aboriginal crime groups and Indo-Canadian crime groups.
In , it was estimated that criminal gangs associated with triads controlled 90 percent of the heroin trade in Vancouver , British Columbia.
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